# Physics 2

### Electric charge and electric field

Electric charge, static electricity, insulators, conductors, charging by conduction, charging by induction, electroscope, Coulomb's law, electric field, electric field lines, electric flux, Gauss's law, electric field of a spherical shell, electric field near a charged conducting sheet and electric field between charged parallel plates.

### Electric potential

Electric potential energy, electric potential, equipotential lines, equipotential surfaces, electron volt, electric potential of a point charge, capacitors, capacitance, parallel plate capacitors, dielectrics, and electric energy

### Electric currents

Electric currents, conventional current, electronic current, batteries, Ohm's law, resistivity, electric power, types of current, alternating current, direct current, ac voltage, ac current, rms voltage, rms current, and macroscopic view of current.

### DC circuits

DC circuit, emf, terminal voltage, battery equation, resistors in series, series equivalent resistance, resistors in parallel, parallel equivalent resistance, Kirchhoff's rules, Kirchhoff's first rule, Kirchhoff's second rule, batteries in series, batteries in parallel, capacitors in series, capacitors in parallel, series equivalent capacitance, parallel equivalent capacitance, RC circuits, capacitor charging, and capacitor discharging.

### Magnetism

Magnets, force between magnets, magnetic field, magnetic field lines, Earth's magnetic field, magnetic field due to a current, magnetic force, current in a magnetic field, right hand rule, magnetic force on a moving charge in a magnetic field, charged particle in magnetic field, magnetic force between parallel wires, solenoids, electromagnets, Ampere's law and torque on a current loop.

### Electromagnetic induction

Induced current, magnetic flux, Faraday's law of induction, Lenz's law, induced emf, and ac generators.

### Electromagnetic waves

Electromagnetic waves, production of electromagnetic waves, speed of electromagnetic waves, types of electromagnetic waves, light as electromagnetic wave, electromagnetic spectrum, energy of electromagnetic waves, and intensity of electromagnetic waves

### Geometric optics

Ray model of light, reflection of light, law of reflection, specular and diffuse reflection, plane mirror, spherical mirrors, concave mirrors, convex mirrors, image formation in mirrors, mirror equation, sign convention, magnification, refraction, law of refraction, Snell's law, total internal reflection, lenses, focal length of a lens, power of a lens, converging lens, diverging lens, image formation in lens, lens equation, lens sign convention, lens magnification, combination of lenses.

### Optical instruments

Human eye, focusing and accommodation, near point, far point, defects of eye, nearsightedness, farsightedness, correcting nearsightedness, correcting farsightedness, contact lenses, magnifying glasses, aberration of lenses, aberrations of mirrors, limits of resolution, diffraction limit, Raleigh criterion, and angular resolution

### Wave nature of light

Models of light, ray model of light, light as wave, light as particles, wave front, Huygens' principle, diffraction, wave model of light, refractive index and wavelength, phase change by reflection, interference, Young's double slit experiment, constructive inteference, destructive interference, dispersion of light, rainbow, diffraction by single slit, diffraction by double slit, diffraction grating, grating equation, thin film interference, polarization, polarized light, unpolarized light, polarizer, Law of Malus, and polarization by reflection.

### Special theory of relativity

Inertial reference frame, postulates of special theory of relativity, simultaneity, time dilation, proper time, space travel, global positioning system and relativity, length contraction, relativistic momentum, relativistic kinetic energy, mass energy equivalence, and relativistic addition of velocities.

### Early models of atoms

Cathode rays, discovery of electron, blackbody radiation, Wien's law, Planck's quantum hypothesis, quantized energy, Einstein photon theory of light, photoelectric effect, Einstein theory of photoelectric effect, photon mass, photon energy, photon momentum, Compton effect, wave-particle duality, wave nature of matter, electron microscope, early models of atom, Rutherford model of atom, hydrogen spectrum, and Bohr model of atom.

### Quantum mechanics of atoms

Limitations of Bohr model, wave function, electron interference, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, quantum mechanics of atoms, quantum mechanics of hydrogen atom, electronic state, quantum numbers, principal quantum number, orbital quantum number, magnetic quantum number, spin quantum number, Zeeman effect, fine structure, ground state of atom, excited states of atom, selection rules, allowed transitions, Pauli's exclusion principle, and electron configuration.